OAKLAND, Calif. — Drivers and different employees for so-called gig financial system corporations in California won’t turn out to be their workers.

California voters carried Uber and Lyft to victory, overwhelmingly approving Proposition 22, a poll measure that permits gig financial system corporations to proceed treating drivers as impartial contractors.

Uber, Lyft and the supply service DoorDash designed the measure to exempt the businesses from a state labor legislation that will have compelled them to make use of drivers and pay for well being care, unemployment insurance coverage and different advantages. As a concession to labor advocates, the initiative presents a wage ground and restricted advantages to drivers.

The Related Press projected early Wednesday that Prop. 22 had carried 58 p.c of the vote. Prop. 22 confronted the strongest opposition in San Francisco, the place Uber and Lyft are headquartered, with greater than a 19 level deficit.

The vote resolves the fiercest regulatory battle Uber and Lyft have confronted and opens a path for the businesses to remake labor legal guidelines all through the nation. The battle pit labor teams and state lawmakers in opposition to ride-hailing and supply start-ups that spent $200 million in assist of the measure.

In voting to assist Uber and Lyft, Californians rejected the ideas outlined in a 2018 state Supreme Court docket ruling and enshrined in a 2019 state legislation that mentioned employees who carry out duties inside an organization’s common enterprise — and are managed by the corporate and don’t function their very own corporations — should be handled as workers. Underneath Prop. 22, gig employees are exempted from these guidelines and might proceed to work independently.

The Sure on Prop. 22 marketing campaign, backed by Uber, Lyft and DoorDash, celebrated the victory. “California has spoken,” Geoff Vetter, a spokesman for the marketing campaign, mentioned in a information launch. “Prop. 22 represents the way forward for work in an more and more technologically-driven financial system.”

Uber’s inventory rallied nearly three p.c on Tuesday as polls advised Prop. 22 was prone to move. Lyft’s inventory was additionally up 7 p.c.

Uber’s chief government, Dara Khosrowshahi, thanked drivers for the win in a late-night electronic mail. “The way forward for impartial work is safer as a result of so many drivers such as you spoke up,” he wrote. He mentioned Uber would make the brand new advantages promised by Prop. 22 obtainable “as quickly as attainable.”

“The final 14 months in California have been essentially the most important level on this concern,” mentioned Bradley Tusk, a enterprise capitalist who suggested Uber on political points throughout its early years. Emboldened by the election, Uber and different gig financial system gamers will doubtless pursue federal laws to formally enshrine gig work within the nation’s labor legal guidelines.

The passage of Prop. 22 is a bitter loss for state and native officers who’ve lengthy seen the ride-hailing corporations as obstinate upstarts that shrugged off any effort to make them observe the principles.

Many native officers believed California was too mild for too lengthy when it got here to regulating Uber and Lyft and naïve about how highly effective and influential the ride-hailing corporations would rapidly turn out to be.

“For all too lengthy, Uber and Lyft banked on the timidity of public officers all through the nation,” mentioned Dennis Herrera, town legal professional of San Francisco. Mr. Herrera has sued Uber and Lyft in an try to pressure them to make use of their drivers, and the litigation continues. “They mentioned, ‘We’re not going to ask permission, we’ll form of say sorry after the actual fact, as soon as the horse has left the barn.’”

Uber and Lyft launched within the early 2010s with only a handful of drivers, resembling automobile pool providers greater than skilled fleets. Whereas Uber initially tried to imitate black automobile providers, it rapidly joined Lyft in selling the concept drivers had been drawn to the apps by the novelty of gig work reasonably than the promise of conventional employment.

Transit officers and taxi corporations warned that the drivers lacked skilled certification and weren’t subjected to background checks. Uber and Lyft argued that they had been primarily expertise corporations, not transportation corporations, and shouldn’t be compelled into the burdensome necessities of licensing, security checks and employment. The California Public Utilities Fee stepped in, setting baseline security necessities however permitting Uber and Lyft to keep away from hiring drivers.

Nonetheless, the employment concern continued. By 2015, the state labor commissioner dominated that drivers had been “integral” to Uber’s enterprise mannequin, however the ruling allowed only one driver to be labeled as an worker.

Nonetheless, three years later, the California Supreme Court docket made a sweeping and unanimous ruling in a case often known as Dynamex. Underneath the three-prong employment check proposed by the courtroom, Uber and Lyft drivers gave the impression to be workers, not contractors.

The ruling prompted concern amongst gig financial system corporations, however they didn’t transfer to reclassify their employees. Lawmakers noticed a possibility to manage a defiant business.

“The issue is that this: Uber and Lyft have uncared for not simply labor legal guidelines however each legislation within the e book,” mentioned Lorena Gonzalez, the California Meeting member who drafted the state’s new labor legislation. “The one cause we had been capable of get A.B. 5 is due to Dynamex. The Supreme Court docket created such a stark, clear rule. It freaked out enterprise as a lot because it inspired labor.”

In September 2019, the state legislature permitted Ms. Gonzalez’s invoice, and the legislation took impact in January.

Underneath the brand new legislation, Uber and Lyft drivers had been workers. However nothing modified. The businesses continued to deal with them as impartial contractors and vowed to take their battle to the poll. In Could, Mr. Herrera, joined by the state legal professional basic and town attorneys of Los Angeles and San Diego, sued Uber and Lyft in an effort to implement the legislation.

When the courtroom ordered the businesses to right away rent their drivers, Uber and Lyft threatened to close down in California reasonably than comply. In addition they funneled tens of millions extra into the poll battle, making Prop. 22 the most costly initiative within the state’s historical past. An appeals courtroom granted Uber and Lyft a small reprieve, permitting them a number of months to adjust to the order.

Though the lawsuit will proceed, Prop. 22 will drastically scale back its scope. The state will proceed to hunt penalties for the time between January and the certification of the election outcomes, when it says Uber and Lyft flouted the legislation.

“You look again and also you say, I want it didn’t want to return to this, that individuals would have began adhering to the legislation,” Mr. Herrera mentioned. “I believed it was necessary to battle for the rights of employees and the rights of shoppers.”

With the gig work mannequin cemented in California, Uber and different gig financial system corporations are anticipated to pursue federal laws that will shield them from comparable employment legal guidelines in different states.

The passage of Prop. 22 is a setback within the yearslong effort to manage tech giants like Uber, however comes as federal lawmakers and officers are more and more desperate to tackle massive tech. Members of Congress in each events assist cracking down on social media corporations and reining within the likes of Amazon and Google. Uber and its gig financial system friends may very well be caught in that anti-tech sentiment.

“We are able to’t simply enable them to regulate what the way forward for work appears to be like like,” Ms. Gonzalez mentioned. “Any person has to face up for the way forward for employees.”

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